Discuss the history and progression of the voice telecommunications industry Answer

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the various modulation techniques of analog signals?

As with anything that offers choice there are advantages and disadvantages. This holds true for the modulation techniques of analog signals. In our reading this week, our material touches on the Amplitude, Frequency, and Phase as the three main techniques. The advantages discussed regarding the Amplitude technique is that if the proper modem is used the message can be reproduced correctly, however the disadvantage – read between the lines is that this modulation technique needs to appropriate modem in order to take high amplitude and zeros to be able to tell the difference between the two and read them with a low amplitude. If the proper modem is not used in this technique one would not have the correct outcome produced. The frequency modulation has the same disadvantage as the amplitude modulation as it does require the proper modem. The advantages of this technique is that the high and low frequencies are based on patterns and received based on the value of said frequency. Lastly is the phase modulation technique having advantages that are based on the wave-form that can tell the difference between ones and zeros for an instant in time. This modular technique is based on measures of degrees of the wave-forms themselves. This particular technique also requires a specific modem type that will enable the wave-forms to be received at the appropriate degree. References: Goleniewski, L. (2007). Telecommunications essentials. (2nd ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson.

Discuss the history and progression of the voice telecommunications industry. What are the current voice network standards?

The beginning of telecommunications was in 1876, with the invention of the telephone. At its inception, the telephone was mainly used as a business tool; the telephone was not too common in American homes until after World War II. The first telephone company, as most of us know, was AT&T, which originally stood for American Telephone & Telegraph, was formed in 1885. AT&T held a monopoly on the telephone services nationwide until 1982, when it was broken up into regional Bell comanies. The regional Bell comanies began to operate in 1984. This lead to the divestiture of the regional Bell companies in 1996, where the monopoly of AT&T was broken. This allowed the long distance markets to be opened to a host of companies, most of which went bankrupt in 2002. Bell Atlantic became Verizon and AT&T was consumed by SBC Communications. The telecommunications companies have been reduced to three major nationwide carriers: Verizon, AT&T and Sprint.

The abilities of telecommunications has expanded vastly. From the original telephone, to wireless phones (now in its 4th generation), to VoIP.  The current standard for voice network is 4G or 4G LTE (Long-Term Evolution). The three major carriers are in the process of rolling out 4G networks.

Standards are important in any industry. Discuss the various standards organizations utilized in this industry. Do they have conflicting charters or have they worked in different areas to form a coordinated industry overview?

There are three standards organizations under the ITU which is a body of the United Nations with members from around the world. The telecommunications standards are intended to perform these functions: Facilitate interconnection between different users, facilitate the portability of equipment within different regions and applications, with the intent of increasing market size, resulting in reduced costs for all and to ensure equipment interoperability so that different vendors’ products work with each other (Goleniewski  L, 2007). The ITU-T  (telecommunications standardization sector), ITU-R (radio communications standardizations sector), and ITU-D (standards for developing nations) make up the ITU.  The next major body is ANSI (America National Standards Institute; with the third major body the TTC (Telecommunications Technology Committee. The groups work to incorporate the standards from each source compatible using base standards. However, equipment does not meet all requirements of the three bodies among others. Test groups for equipment have been established as well; however depending on the vendor there is no guarantee the equipment will meet each organizations requirement.

References:

Telecommunications Essentials. The Complete Global Source, Second Edition. Chapter 1:

Telecommunications Technology Fundamentals. Lillian Goleniewski , Kitty Wilson Jarrett. https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/content/eBookLibrary2/content/eReader.aspx?assetMetaId=b6250a6e-dfe1-4ff0-aa55-7b486edafe5a&assetDataId=0af7d564-ac30-475e-af16-6dcdb446de76&assetpdfdataid=c0a0aec8-4cf6-4d8b-8e79-100051de0afc